The most important factor in running an efficient transit system is population density - and the population density below the escarpment is enough to make transit work.
By Nicholas Kevlahan
Published October 02, 2013
The Renew Hamilton organization is a Hamilton Chamber of Commerce initiative that aims "To document, promote and accelerate the regeneration of Hamilton's built and natural environments with a particular focus on our downtown and adjacent neighbourhoods." They sponsor a speaker series on urban issues called "Conversations with Christopher Hume and Guests".
Christopher Hume (Image Credit: Renew Hamilton)
Since I enjoy Christopher Hume's Toronto Star columns, and I am an advocate of light rail transit (LRT) for Hamilton, I decided to attend last Thursday's event, called "High Time for Transit".
The evening kicked off with an introduction by the new president of the Chamber, Keanin Loomis, who explained why the Chamber supports this initiative and what positive changes are already happening in Hamilton.
He reprised some of the themes of his recent Spectator column, including his impression that Hamilton has reached a tipping point in its recognition of the importance of pedestrian-friendly streets in driving a vibrant economy.
His main message was, "This city's transportation infrastructure, in its current state, will be the biggest drag on our future success". He clearly thinks the critical missing parts of this infrastructure are not freeways or wider, faster streets, but LRT and complete streets.
It is extremely encouraging to hear this message coming from the president of the Chamber of Commerce!
Loomis then passed the microphone to Jeff Feswick of Historia Restoration, who introduced Christopher Hume and the other guests. Hume started off with a general overview of the importance of transit to successful cities, and how the GTA and Hamilton are falling behind.
The "guests" were Don Hull, the Director of Transportation for the City of Hamilton, Mary Proc, Vice President, Customer Service of GO Transit, Alex Bitterman, Associate Professor of Architecture in the Golisano Institute of Sustainability at the Rochester Institute of Technology, and Andrew Kuzyk, a partner in Entro Communications.
Each guest was given five minutes to make an opening statement. Hume then asked a few probing questions, and finally speakers took a few questions from the audience.
Don Hull was extremely impressive and very well prepared, with facts and figures at his fingertips. In five minutes he managed to give an excellent overview of the role of transit in urban planning, the challenges the HSR faces and the opportunities for improvement in the future. He also placed the HSR in the regional and national context.
Although it is well known that low-density sprawl makes transit inefficient, I was surprised to discover that the HSR service below the escarpment actually makes an operating profit that is used to subsidize service on the mountain.
In other words, if the HSR only had to serve the lower city it would be profitable and might not require a public subsidy!
As Hull pointed out, the most important factor in running an efficient transit system is population density - and the population density below the escarpment is enough to make transit work. This shows how important it is for land use and zoning decisions to support the densities and mixed uses that make transit viable.
Besides urban sprawl, another challenge for transit in Hamilton is the over-supply of cheap parking, the cheapest in Canada by some measures. Cheap parking harms transit in two ways: it undercuts on price because over-supply means monthly parking is much cheaper than a monthly bus pass; and it reduces density by locking up land as unproductive car storage surface lots.
On the regional and national level, Hull pointed to the lack of a national transit policy and national funding as a serious handicap in effective long-range planning. Canada is one of the few developed countries without a national transit or transportation policy, and there is no consistent federal funding source for transit.
Even at the regional level, it has proven very hard to get municipalities to cooperate. Apparently, the various municipalities spent months arguing over what colour the Presto card should be!
Despite the challenges, the HSR has made considerable progress in the last few years. It now has the youngest fleet in Canada (with an average age of less than six years). Service is slowly expanding after many years of retrenchment. All buses are GPS-equipped, which means that they should be able to give riders real-time arrival information, and the HSR will soon trial traffic signal priority for buses.
Hull realizes that frequency of service is a real challenge. Infrequent service discourages everyone except commuters (who know exactly which bus they need to take), and service is often only every 30 minutes in the suburbs and in the evenings and weekends. Increasing frequency is one of the most effective ways of making transit more attractive, especially for casual use.
Finally, Hull argued that transit is not in conflict with automobiles, but that we should make sure the entire transportation system works efficiently and that people have the opportunity to make the best modal choice for each trip.
He also emphasized that every trip begins and ends with walking, and so the quality of the pedestrian experience really is the foundation of the entire transportation network.
Mary Proc talked about the on-time service improvements in GO Transit since 2008 and how occupancy had increased from 58% to 82 percent. She described how GO decided they wanted to be associated with the one word "easy" and that this is the basis of their branding strategy.
However, she emphasized that their challenge now is not attracting customers but accommodating growth. GO simply cannot expand fast enough to meet demand.
Proc had two important messages for Hamilton.
The first is that two-way all-day GO train service is not a "promise", but a "funded commitment".
However, for me, her most important statement was that Hamilton will get "14 km of LRT to be funded by the investment strategy in the first round". This was news to me, and I hope she really is giving us official GO (and Government of Ontario) policy!
The other two speakers were a bit of a let down.
Kuzyk clearly hadn't come prepared, and seemed surprised when asked to make a five-minute opening statement. He mumbled something about the importance of "branding" and making transit a "value proposition", and then ran out of things to say after about 30 seconds.
Bitterman also seemed to think the beginning and end of transit planning was coming up with an effective branding strategy that would make people want to take transit - rather than, for example, actually providing a top-notch service.
He then launched into a long anecdote about how "Pan Am became the airline every other airline wanted to be" by implementing a comprehensive branding strategy.
After he finished, Hume remarked drily that Pan Am went bankrupt over 20 years ago, so clearly having a top brand wasn't enough to save their business! Bitterman's obsession with branding also seemed a bit beside the point since Proc had just finished explaining that GO's challenge wasn't attracting customers, it was managing demand.
I must admit that with all the challenges of transit, and its importance in urban design and urban economies, I was surprised that three out of the four guests focused almost exclusively on "branding".
Loomis then asked Mayor Bob Bratina to make some comments. He gave us one of his folksy reminiscences about growing up in Hamilton, describing how his dad would ride a bike to work (complete with metal pant clips) and how he himself loved being downtown and refused to switch schools when they moved to the mountain.
But then he said something quite insightful, which made me think he is finally 'getting it'. He said, "We are trying to re-invent the city I grew up in in the 1950s," and "Young people can't afford a $33,000 car and don't want to get their license."
I hope this means that the Mayor's thinking has evolved radically since last year, when he still supported our high-speed one-way auto-centric traffic system on the basis that we can't go back to the 1950s:
Traffic planning in the 21st Century can't be compared to the conditions in 1956, when the one-way system was implemented in Hamilton," and pointing out that more families now own two cars and fewer people ride bicycles or take transit to work.
"That was then," he writes, "and now the picture has changed completely, so decisions on traffic management have to respond to current conditions."
I hope that Bratina is beginning to understand that we can go back to liveable, vibrant and economically dynamic complete streets, just like Loomis explained in his opening remarks.
Some of us still ride a bike to work, metal pant clips and all.
There was time for a few questions from the audience. The evening concluded with Richard Allen presenting Christopher Hume with Dave Kuruc's poster showing the list of proposed Hamilton LRT stops. Hume commented that he understood LRT is "controversial" in Hamilton.
Hamilton B-Line LRT rendering
Richard Allen deserves huge recognition for organizing this series, and I am impressed that Christopher Hume has donated his time over many Hamilton evenings to promote this discussion. It's not always easy to get someone from Toronto to take Hamilton seriously as a city.
Somewhat ironically, I was the only one who rode a bike to the evening at Liuna Station, which, I discovered, has no dedicated bike parking. And I'm pretty sure no one took public transit, either.
The next Renew Hamilton event is a learning forum, which will take place 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM on October 18 in a tent pitched on the site of the William Thomas building next to the Lister Block. The theme is how to create quality urban environments and will feature "local speakers and success stories."
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